Forwarded to me without attribution:
Rabbi Moshe Karelman, a brilliant Talmudist, and his star pupil Yeshaya are traveling to Vilna when they have to stop for the night, and pitch their tent in an empty field.
After the evening prayers Rabbi Karelman and Yeshaya retire for the evening. Some hours later, Rabbi Karelman wakes up and nudges his student. "Yeshaya, look up at the sky and tell me what you see."
"I see millions and millions of stars, Rabbi Karelman."
"And from this, what do you deduce?"
Yeshaya ponders for a minute. "Well, astronomically, this view conveys the vastness of the heavens. Chronometrically, I deduce that the time is approximately a quarter past three. Meteorologically, I suspect that we will have a beautiful day tomorrow. Theologically, I can see that God is all powerful, and that we are a small and insignificant part of His universe. What does it tell you, Rabbi Karelman?"
"It tells me that someone has stolen our tent."
I've seen variations on this before, but this is the most thorough answer from the student I've seen in any of those tellings.
A comment notes that this is often attributed to Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.